Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”), and pursuant to the accounting and disclosure rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

These unaudited condensed interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019 included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on March 13, 2020.  The accounting policies used in preparing these unaudited condensed interim financial statements are consistent with those described in the Company’s December 31, 2019 audited financial statements.



Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported expenses during the reporting periods.  

The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the valuation of stock-based compensation instruments, recognition of revenue, the useful lives of long-lived assets, and income tax expense. Some of these judgments can be subjective and complex, and, consequently, actual results may differ from these estimates. Although the Company believes that its estimates and assumptions are reasonable, they are based upon information available at the time the estimates and assumptions were made. Actual results could differ from those estimates.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity at the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash balances that may be uninsured or in deposit accounts that exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation limits. The Company maintains its cash deposits with major financial institutions.

Revenue Recognition

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (Topic 606).

In accordance with Topic 606, the Company recognizes revenue using the following five-step approach:




Identify the contract with a customer.



Identify the performance obligations in the contract.



Determine the transaction price of the contract.



Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.



Recognize revenue when the performance obligations are met or delivered.

The Company’s revenue currently consists of product development projects revenue and royalty revenue from Dialog. The Company also provides contract services for Dialog.  

The Company records revenue associated with product development projects that it enters into with certain customers. In general, these product development projects are complex, and the Company does not have certainty about its ability to achieve the project milestones. The achievement of a milestone is dependent on the Company’s performance obligation and requires acceptance by the customer. The Company recognizes this revenue at a point in time based on when the performance obligation is met. The payment associated with achieving the performance obligation is generally commensurate with the Company’s effort or the value of the deliverable and is nonrefundable. The Company records the expenses related to these product development projects in research and development expense, in the periods such expenses were incurred.

The Company records royalty revenue from its manufacturing partner, Dialog, and such royalty revenue is recognized at a point in time based on shipments from Dialog to its customers.

The Company recognizes contract services revenue from Dialog over a period of time as the services are performed. The costs associated with this revenue are recognized as the services are performed and are included in cost of services revenue.


Research and Development

Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred. For internally developed patents, all patent application costs are expensed as incurred as research and development expense. Patent application costs, which are generally legal costs, are expensed as research and development costs until such time as the future economic benefits of such patents become more certain. The Company incurred research and development costs of $4,575,303 and $6,800,678 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to employees, board members and contractors in accordance with accounting guidance that requires awards to be recorded at their fair value on the date of grant and are amortized over the vesting period of the award. The Company recognizes compensation costs on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is typically the vesting term of the equity instrument issued.

Under the Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), employees may purchase a limited number of shares of the Company’s common stock at a 15% discount from the lower of the closing market prices measured on the first and last days of each half-year period. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for the fair value of the purchase options, as measured on the grant date.



Income Taxes

Tax benefits are recognized only for tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement. A liability for “unrecognized tax benefits” is recorded for any tax benefits claimed in the Company’s tax returns that do not meet these recognition and measurement standards. As of March 31, 2020, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be reported. The guidance also discusses the classification of related interest and penalties on income taxes. The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense. No interest or penalties were recorded during the three months ended March 31, 2020 or 2019. The Company files income tax returns with the United States and California governments.

Net Loss Per Common Share

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares and, if dilutive, potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options and warrants (using the treasury stock method), the vesting of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance stock units (“PSUs”) and the enrollment of employees in the ESPP. The computation of diluted loss per share excludes potentially dilutive securities of 7,206,004 and 7,601,654 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.

Potentially dilutive securities outlined in the table below have been excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share because the effect of their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive.  




For the Three Months

Ended March 31,













Warrant issued to private investors











Options to purchase common stock
































Total potentially dilutive securities













Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued




As of January 1, 2019, the Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at the inception of the arrangement. The Company applies the short-term lease recognition exemption and recognizes lease payments in profit or loss at lease commencement for facility or equipment leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less and do not include a purchase option whose exercise is reasonably certain. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (ROU) assets and operating lease liabilities.


ROU assets represent the right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are measured and recorded at the later of the adoption date, January 1, 2019, or the service commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses the implicit interest rate when readily determinable; however, most leases do not establish an implicit rate, so the Company uses an estimate of the incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the time of measurement. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. See Note 4 – Commitments and Contingencies, Operating Leases for further discussion of the Company’s operating leases.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In July 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-07, “Codification Updates to SEC Sections.” ASU 2019-07 updates the SEC portion of the FASB’s codification literature to reflect the changes the SEC made to simplify disclosures. It is effective immediately. The Company adopted ASU 2019-07 and its adoption had no material impact on its financial statements.


In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740),” Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions under Topic 740 and improves consistent application by clarifying and amending existing guidance. This standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company does not believe adoption of this standard will have a material impact on its financial statements.


Management’s Evaluation of Subsequent Events

The Company evaluates events that have occurred after the balance sheet date of March 31, 2020, through the date which the financial statements are issued.