Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), and pursuant to the accounting and disclosure rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported expenses during the reporting periods.
The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the valuation of stock-based compensation instruments, recognition of revenue, the useful lives of long-lived assets, and income tax expense. Some of these judgments can be subjective and complex, and, consequently, actual results may differ from these estimates. Although the Company believes that its estimates and assumptions are reasonable, they are based upon information available at the time the estimates and assumptions were made. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity at the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash balances that may be uninsured or in deposit accounts that exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation limits. The Company maintains its cash deposits with major financial institutions.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (Topic 606), which is described below in Recent Accounting Pronouncements.
In accordance with Topic 606, the Company recognizes revenue using the following five-step approach:
The Company records revenue associated with product development projects that it enters into with certain customers. In general, these development projects are complex, and the Company does not have certainty about its ability to achieve the project milestones. The achievement of a milestone is dependent on the Company’s performance obligation, and requires acceptance by the customer. The Company recognizes revenue based on when the performance obligation is met. However, the Company does not recognize revenue in excess of an accepted milestone, as there would be uncertainty of payment for work that has not been accepted. The payment associated with achieving the performance obligation is generally commensurate with the Company’s effort or the value of the deliverable and is nonrefundable. The Company records the expenses related to these projects in research and development expense, in the periods such expenses were incurred.
The Company also records royalty revenue from its manufacturing partner, Dialog, based on shipments from Dialog to its customers.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred. For internally developed patents, all patent application costs are expensed as incurred as research and development expense. Patent application costs, which are generally legal costs, are expensed as research and development costs until such time as the future economic benefits of such patents become more certain. The Company incurred research and development costs of $32,871,685 and $33,230,668 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to employees in accordance with accounting guidance that requires awards to be recorded at their fair value on the date of grant and are amortized over the vesting period of the award. The Company recognizes compensation costs on a straight line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is typically the vesting term of the equity instrument issued.
Under the Company’s Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”), employees may purchase a limited number of shares of the Company’s stock at a 15% discount from the lower of the closing market prices measured on the first and last days of each half-year period. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for the fair value of the purchase options, as measured on the grant date.
Tax benefits are recognized only for tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement. A liability for “unrecognized tax benefits” is recorded for any tax benefits claimed in the Company’s tax returns that do not meet these recognition and measurement standards. As of December 31, 2018, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be reported. The guidance also discusses the classification of related interest and penalties on income taxes. The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense. No interest or penalties were recorded during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. The Company files income tax returns with the United States and California governments.
Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares and, if dilutive, potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options and warrants (using the treasury stock method), the vesting of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance stock units (“PSUs”) and the enrollment of employees in the ESPP. The computation of diluted loss per share excludes potentially dilutive securities of 6,161,356 and 7,324,400 for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, because their inclusion would be antidilutive.
Potentially dilutive securities outlined in the table below have been excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share because the effect of their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive.
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (Topic 606) (“ASU 2014-09”), which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in ASU Topic 605, "Revenue Recognition," and most industry-specific guidance. ASU 2014-09 is based on the principle that revenue is recognized to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments, and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. Originally, ASU 2014-09 would be effective for the Company starting January 1, 2017 using either of two methods: (i) retrospective to each prior reporting period presented with the option to elect certain practical expedients as defined within ASU 2014-09; or (ii) retrospective with the cumulative effect of initially applying ASU 2014-09 recognized at the date of initial application and providing certain additional disclosures as defined per ASU 2014-09. In July 2015, FASB voted to amend ASU 2014-09 by approving a one-year deferral of the effective date as well as providing the option to early adopt the standard on the original effective date. The Company used the modified retrospective implementation method for all contracts and did not need to record a cumulative effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the date of initial application.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, “Financial Instruments – Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities”. The standard addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company has adopted ASU 2016-01 and its adoption had no material impact on its financial statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU 2016-02”). This standard requires that a lessee recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from operating leases. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company evaluated the effects that the adoption of this new standard will have on its financial statements and does not expect the adoption to have a material impact on its financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326) - Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.” ASU No. 2016-13 provides financial statement reader more decision-useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date. It is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company will evaluate the effects, if any, that adoption of this guidance will have on its financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) – Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments.” ASU No. 2016-15 addresses eight specific cash flow issues with the objective of reducing the existing diversity in practice. It is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The adoption of the new standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued
Recent Accounting Pronouncements, continued
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230)—Restricted Cash.” ASU No. 2016-18 requires an entity to include amounts described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. It is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position and results of operations.
In December 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-20, “Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers.” ASU No. 2016-20 amends certain aspects of ASU No. 2014-09 and clarifies, rather than changes, the core revenue recognition principles in ASU No. 2014-09. It is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial position and results of operations.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718) – Scope of Modification Accounting.” ASU No. 2017-09 provides clarity and reduces complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718 for changes in terms or conditions of share-based payment awards. It is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The adoption of the new standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In July 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued a two-part Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2017-11, I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments With Down Round Features and II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests With a Scope Exception (“ASU 2017-11”). ASU 2017-11 amends guidance in FASB ASC 260, Earnings Per Share, FASB ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, and FASB ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. The amendments in Part I of ASU 2017-11 change the classification analysis of certain equity-linked financial instruments (or embedded features) with down round features. The amendments in Part II of ASU 2017-11 re-characterize the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of Topic 480 that now are presented as pending content in the Codification, to a scope exception. Those amendments do not have an accounting effect. ASU 2017-11 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this new standard will have on its financial statements.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-based Payment Accounting.” ASU 2018-07 aligns accounting for share-based payments issued to nonemployees to that of employees under the existing guidance of Topic 718, with certain exceptions. This update supersedes previous guidance for equity-based payments to nonemployees under Subtopic 505-50, “Equity – Equity-based Payments to Nonemployees.” It is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of this new standard will have on its financial statements.
Management’s Evaluation of Subsequent Events
The Company evaluates events that have occurred after the balance sheet date of December 31, 2018, through the date which the financial statements are issued. Based upon the review, other than the event disclosed in Note 13 – Subsequent Events, the Company did not identify any subsequent events that would have required adjustment or disclosure in the financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef