|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
Note 9 – Income Taxes
In December 2017, the SEC issued Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118 (“SAB 118”), which provides guidance on accounting for the income tax effects of the TCJA. SAB 118 provides a measurement period that should not extend beyond one year from the TCJA enactment date for companies to complete the accounting relating to the TCJA under Accounting Standards Codification Topic 740, “Income Taxes” (“ASC 740”). In accordance with SAB 118, a company must reflect the income tax effects of those aspects of the TCJA for which the accounting under ASC 740 is complete. To the extent that a company’s accounting for TCJA-related income tax effects is incomplete, but the company is able to determine a reasonable estimate, it must record a provisional estimate in its financial statements. If a company cannot determine a provisional estimate to be included in its financial statements, it should continue to apply ASC 740 on the basis of the provisions of the tax laws that were in effect immediately before the enactment of the TCJA. The Company completed its analysis of the TCJA’s income tax effects. In accordance with SAB 118, the TCJA-related income tax effects that the Company initially reported as provisional estimates were refined as additional analysis was performed. There was no material impact to the Company’s financial statements recorded when its analysis was completed in the 2018 fourth quarter.
As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company’s deferred tax assets (liabilities) consisted of the effects of temporary differences attributable to the following:
The change in the Company’s valuation allowance is as follows:
Note 9 – Income Taxes, continued
The Company has federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $130,590,000 and $131,084,000, respectively, available to offset future taxable income. The federal and state NOL carryforwards will expire at various dates beginning in 2033. The Company has federal and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $3,669,000 and $2,944,000, respectively. The federal R&D credit carryforwards will expire beginning in 2032 and state R&D credit carryforwards do not expire. The ultimate realization of the net operating loss is dependent upon future taxable income, if any, of the Company. Although management believes that the Company may have sufficient future taxable income to absorb the net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credit carryforwards before the expiration of the carryforward period, there may be circumstances beyond the Company’s control that limit such utilization. Accordingly, management has determined that a full valuation allowance of the deferred tax asset is appropriate at December 31, 2018 and 2017.
Internal Revenue Code Section 382 imposes limitations on the use of net operating loss carryforwards when the stock ownership of one or more 5% shareholders (shareholders owning 5% or more of the Company’s outstanding capital stock) has increased on a cumulative basis by more than 50 percentage points. Management cannot control the ownership changes occurring as a result of public trading of the Company’s Common Stock. Accordingly, there is a risk of an ownership change beyond the control of the Company that could trigger a limitation of the use of the loss carryforward. The Company completed a Section 382 analysis as of December 31, 2018 and determined that none of its NOLs or R&D credits would be limited.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef