Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2023
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying financial statements are presented in U.S. dollars and have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”), and pursuant to the accounting and disclosure rules and regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).
These unaudited condensed interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and notes thereto for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022 included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on March 30, 2023. The accounting policies used in preparing these unaudited condensed interim financial statements are consistent with those described in the Company’s December 31, 2022 audited financial statements.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported expenses during the reporting periods.
The Company’s significant estimates and assumptions include the valuation of stock-based compensation instruments, recognition of revenue, inventory valuation, fair value of warrant liabilities and the valuation allowance on deferred tax assets. Some of these judgments can be subjective and complex, and, consequently, actual results may differ from these estimates. Although the Company believes that its estimates and assumptions are reasonable, they are based upon information available at the time the estimates and assumptions were made. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all short-term, highly liquid investments with an original maturity at the date of purchase of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains cash balances that may be uninsured or in deposit accounts that exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation limits. The Company maintains its cash deposits with major financial institutions.
The Company accounts for warrants as either equity-classified or liability-classified instruments based on an assessment of the warrant’s specific terms and applicable authoritative guidance in Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 480, “Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity” (“ASC 480”), and ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging” (“ASC 815”). The assessment considers whether the warrants are freestanding financial instruments pursuant to ASC 480, meet the definition of a liability pursuant to ASC 480, and whether the warrants meet all of the requirements for equity classification under ASC 815, including whether the warrants are indexed to the Company’s common stock, among other conditions for equity classification. This assessment, which requires the use of professional judgment, is conducted at the time of warrant issuance and as of each subsequent quarterly period end date while the warrants are outstanding.
For issued or modified warrants that meet all of the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a component of additional paid-in capital at the time of issuance. For issued or modified warrants that do not meet all the criteria for equity classification, the warrants are required to be recorded as a liability at their initial fair value on the date of issuance, and each balance sheet date thereafter. Changes in the estimated fair value of the warrants are recognized as a non-cash gain or loss on the statements of operations. The fair value of the warrants is estimated using an appropriate valuation model. Such warrant classification is also subject to re-evaluation at each reporting period.
Offering costs associated with warrants classified as liabilities are expensed as incurred and are presented as offering cost related to warrant liability in the statement of operations. Offering costs associated with the sale of warrants classified as equity are charged against proceeds.
The Company follows ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements (“ASC 820”), which establishes a common definition of fair value to be applied when US GAAP requires the use of fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and requires certain disclosure about such fair value measurements.
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued
ASC 820 establishes a hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the Company. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect the Company’s assumptions about what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on the best information available in the circumstances. The hierarchy is broken down into three levels based on the reliability of inputs as follows:
Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities to which the Company has access at a measurement date.
Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly; these include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in an active market, quoted prices for identical assets and liabilities in markets that are not active, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs for which little or no market data exists and for which the Company must develop its own assumptions regarding the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions regarding risk.
Because of the uncertainties inherent in the valuation of assets or liabilities for which there are no observable inputs, those estimated fair values may differ significantly from the values that may have been used had a ready market for the assets or liabilities existed.
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, such as cash, cash equivalents, prepaid expenses, other current assets, and accounts payable & accrued expenses, are an approximate of their fair values because of the short maturity of these instruments. The Company’s derivative liabilities recognized at fair value on a recurring basis are a level 3 measurement (see Note 8 – Fair Value Measurement).
The Company follows Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606, "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" (“Topic 606”).
In accordance with Topic 606, the Company recognizes revenue using the following five-step approach:
Identify the contract with a customer.
Identify the performance obligations in the contract.
Determine the transaction price of the contract.
Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract.
Recognize revenue when or as the performance obligations are satisfied.
The Company’s revenue consists of its single segment of wireless charging system solutions. The wireless charging system revenue consists of revenue from product development projects and production-level systems. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, the Company recognized $168,708 and $382,517, respectively, in revenue. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, the Company recognized $223,201 and $672,133, respectively, in revenue.
The Company records revenue associated with product development projects that it enters into with certain customers. In general, these product development projects are complex, and the Company does not have certainty about its ability to achieve the project milestones. The achievement of a milestone is dependent on the Company’s performance obligation and requires acceptance by the customer. The Company recognizes this revenue at the point in time at which the performance obligation is met. The payment associated with achieving the performance obligation is generally commensurate with the Company’s effort or the value of the deliverable and is nonrefundable. The Company records the expenses related to these product development projects in research and development expense, in the periods such expenses were incurred.
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued
The Company follows ASC 330, Inventory (“Topic 330”) to account for its inventory, which includes finished goods ready for sale, work in process and raw materials, at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Net realizable value is calculated at the end of each reporting period and adjustment, if needed, is made.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses are charged to operations as incurred. For internally developed patents, all patent costs are expensed as incurred as research and development expense. Patent application costs, which are generally legal costs, are expensed as research and development costs until such time as the future economic benefits of such patents become more certain. The Company incurred research and development costs of $2,460,123 and $8,418,779 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023, respectively. The Company incurred research and development costs of $2,885,830 and $9,622,886 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, respectively.
The Company accounts for equity instruments issued to employees, board members and contractors in accordance with accounting guidance that requires awards to be recorded at their fair value on the date of grant and amortized over the vesting period of the award. The Company amortizes compensation costs on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period of the award, which is typically the vesting term of the equity instrument issued.
Under the ESPP, employees may purchase a limited number of shares of the Company’s common stock at a 15% discount from the lower of the closing market prices measured on the first and last days of each half-year period. The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense for the fair value of the purchase options, as measured on the grant date.
Tax benefits are recognized only for tax positions that are more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by tax authorities. The amount recognized is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon settlement. A liability for “unrecognized tax benefits” is recorded for any tax benefits claimed in the Company’s tax returns that do not meet these recognition and measurement standards. As of September 30, 2023, no liability for unrecognized tax benefits was required to be reported. The guidance from ASC 740, Income Taxes, also discusses the classification of related interest and penalties on income taxes. The Company’s policy is to record interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense. No interest or penalties were recorded during the three or nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 2022. The Company files income tax returns with the United States and California governments.
Accounting for Reverse Stock Split
During the three months ended September 30, 2023, the Company effected a reverse stock split of its common stock at a ratio of 1-for-20 (See Note 1 - Business Organization, Nature of Operations, Reverse Stock Split). On August 15, 2023, the Company had 92,069,632 shares of common stock issued and outstanding prior to the reverse stock split taking effect. On August 16, 2023, the Company had 4,601,654 shares of outstanding common stock after the reverse stock split became effective. No fractional shares were issued in connection with the reverse stock split, and stockholders of record who would have otherwise been entitled to receive a fractional share received a cash payment in lieu thereof. The Company paid approximately $6,250 for cash in lieu of fractional shares. The par value of the Company's common stock did not change and no adjustments to historical par value were made. All information presented in the accompanying financial statements, unless otherwise indicated herein, reflects the 1-for-20 reverse stock split of the Company’s outstanding shares of common stock, and unless otherwise indicated, all such amounts and corresponding conversion price or exercise price data set forth herein have been adjusted to give effect to such reverse stock split.
Note 3 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, continued
Net Loss Per Common Share
Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares and, if dilutive, potential common shares outstanding during the period. Potential common shares consist of the incremental common shares issuable upon the exercise of stock options and warrants (using the treasury stock method), the vesting of restricted stock units (“RSUs”) and performance stock units (“PSUs”) and the enrollment of employees in the ESPP. The computation of diluted loss per share excludes potentially dilutive securities of 597,020 for both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2023 and 312,319 for both the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, as outlined in the table below, because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The table above includes 83,333 warrants expiring on March 1, 2024, which have an exercise price of $200.00 and 412,500 warrants expiring on March 28, 2029, which have an exercise price of $1.66.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at the inception of the arrangement. The Company applies the short-term lease recognition exemption and recognizes lease payments in profit or loss at lease commencement for facility or equipment leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less and do not include a purchase option whose exercise is reasonably certain. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and operating lease liabilities.
ROU assets represent the right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are measured and recorded at the later of the adoption date, January 1, 2019, or the service commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses the implicit interest rate when readily determinable; however, most leases do not establish an implicit rate, so the Company uses an estimate of the incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the time of measurement. Lease expense for lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. See Note 4 – Commitments and Contingencies, Operating Leases for further discussion of the Company’s operating leases.
Management’s Evaluation of Subsequent Events
The Company evaluates events that have occurred after the balance sheet date of September 30, 2023, through the date which the financial statements are available to be issued.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef