|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
Note 9 – Income Taxes
On March 27, 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (CARES) Act was signed into law. The CARES Act includes provisions relating to refundable payroll tax credits, net operating loss carryback periods, alternative minimum tax refunds, modifications to the net interest deduction limitations and technical corrections to the tax depreciation methods for qualified improvement property. The CARES Act has an immaterial impact on the Company’s income taxes.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, “Income Taxes” (“ASC 740”). ASC 740 requires an asset and liability approach for financial accounting and reporting for income taxes and establishes for all entities a minimum threshold for financial statement recognition of the benefit of tax positions and requires certain expanded disclosures. The provision for income taxes is based upon income or loss after adjustment for those permanent items that are not considered in the determination of taxable income. Deferred income taxes represent the tax effects of differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of the Company’s assets and liabilities at the enacted tax rates in effect for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, deferred tax assets consisted principally of net operating loss and tax credit carryforwards, research and development costs and stock-based compensation, and such deferred tax assets were fully reserved. The Company evaluates the recoverability of deferred tax assets and establishes a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. As of December 31, 2021, the Company has recorded a full valuation allowance.
Note 9 – Income Taxes, continued
As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company’s deferred tax assets (liabilities) consisted of the effects of temporary differences attributable to the following:
The change in the Company’s valuation allowance is as follows:
The Company has federal and state net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $241,988,000 and $242,972,000, respectively, available to offset future taxable income. The federal and state NOL carryforwards will expire at various dates beginning in 2033. The Company has federal and state research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $5,748,000 and $4,718,000, respectively. The federal R&D credit carryforwards will expire beginning in 2032 and state R&D credit carryforwards do not expire. The ultimate realization of the net operating loss is dependent upon future taxable income, if any, of the Company. Although management believes that the Company may have sufficient future taxable income to absorb the net operating loss carryforwards and research and development tax credit carryforwards before the expiration of the carryforward period, there may be circumstances beyond the Company’s control that limit such utilization. Accordingly, management has determined that a full valuation allowance of the deferred tax asset is appropriate at December 31, 2021 and 2020.
Note 9 – Income Taxes, continued
Internal Revenue Code Section 382 imposes limitations on the use of net operating loss carryforwards when the stock ownership of one or more 5% stockholders (stockholders owning 5% or more of the Company’s outstanding capital stock) has increased on a cumulative basis by more than 50 percentage points. Management cannot control the ownership changes occurring as a result of public trading of the Company’s Common Stock. Accordingly, there is a risk of an ownership change beyond the control of the Company that could trigger a limitation of the use of the loss carryforward. The Company completed a Section 382 analysis as of December 31, 2021 and determined that none of its NOLs or R&D credits would be limited.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef